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比白糖和酒精更可怕的健康殺手

分類:科技云 瀏覽數:14 2019-06-28 19:59 N軟網 編輯: 厚學

現在很多人都知道我們攝入糖分過多的危害,但有一種我們日常經常吃的東西,比“白糖”和“酒精”更可怕的健康殺手!

然而我們不知不覺,很多人幾乎天天會吃到!它就是——果葡糖漿!


果葡糖漿

自 1970 年誕生以來,它讓美國人的:

肥胖率——從13%達到了現在的40%,增長了3倍。

痛風發病率——從1970年的3%增長到了1996年的9%,增長了3倍。

糖尿病發病率——從1958年不到1%增長到了2015年的7.4%,增長了7.5倍。

2014年《營養學》雜志(Journal of Nutrition)刊登一項最新研究《美國研究稱果葡糖漿比食用糖更有害健康》指出,經常用在汽水與加工食品中的果葡糖漿,恐比一般的食用糖更有害健康。猶他大學生物學系研究員波茲(Wayne Potts)表示,約在 1970 年代中期,掀起一股舍棄普通糖分、改用果葡糖漿的浪潮,這個改變剛好與糖尿病及肥胖癥在美國開始盛行的時間發展吻合。

那什么是“果葡糖漿 ”?

很多人乍一聽到 “果葡糖漿“ 這個名字,會將它與健康、天然劃上等號。然而,這都是假象,你被它騙了!

事實上,果葡糖漿中既沒有果,也沒有葡,它是一種通過酶解法從玉米淀粉中獲得的甜味劑,之所以取名為果葡糖漿,是因為它既有葡萄糖,也有果糖。

如果按所含 果糖比例 劃分,我們可以將常見的果葡糖漿分成 3 類:

含有 42% 果糖的 42 號果葡糖漿,

含有 55% 果糖的 55 號果葡糖漿,

含有 90% 果糖的 90 號果葡糖漿。

42號果葡糖漿適合用來做蛋糕、餅干,而55號果糖則比較適合做冷飲、飲品。90號果葡糖漿因為果糖含量過高,甜度太大,所以日常生活中不常見。

自1970年誕生以來,果葡糖漿立刻以成本低、甜度高、易發酵、好上色、保質期長等特點,被廣大食品廠商爭相使用。就這樣,在多方因素作用下,果葡糖漿在全世界風靡起來。

此后,蛋糕、餅干、果汁、番茄醬、罐裝食品,不管之前加不加糖,現在很多產品都加入了不同含量的果葡糖漿。

甚至有人稱“果葡糖漿”成為繼 氫化植物油(反之脂肪酸)之后,食品工業界危害人類的第二個“偉大發明”。

果葡糖漿的危害要比你想象大得多!

果葡糖漿對人體最大的危害,是讓我們吃下超量果糖。這些超量的果糖,會給我們的身體,尤其是‘肝臟’帶來巨大的代謝負擔。

2016年福建中醫藥大學藥學院發表的一份關于《果葡糖漿的健康風險及其措施的研究發展》報告中指出,相比葡萄糖,果糖易被肝臟攝取,因為葡萄糖在體內代謝途徑更為復雜,過量攝入果糖會促進脂肪的大量合成,增加患肥胖、血脂紊亂、胰島素抵抗,以及心血管等疾病的患病風險。過量攝入果葡糖漿,也會引起肥胖、糖尿病、高血壓等疾病。

1肥胖

如果我們攝入的果糖,是來自果葡糖漿,那就完全是另外一回事了!這是因為新鮮水果中的果糖,被膳食纖維包裹著,吸收速度更慢,而果葡糖漿中的液態果糖,在進入人體后,可以以 最快的速度被人體吸收。

2007年10月第4期美國臨床營養雜志刊發的一篇關于《果糖在高血壓、肥胖和代謝綜合征、糖尿病中的潛在作用》研究顯示:自果葡糖漿發明以來,美國人的果糖攝入量與日俱增,從 1972 年每人每年不到 0.45 公斤,很快就增長到了 1992 年的每人每年 28.35 公斤。

這意味著美國人每天,光果糖就吃掉 77 g,遠遠超過了世衛組織推薦的每日糖攝入總量。

在過量果糖的攝入下,美國人的肥胖率呈現筆直上升,從 13% 飆升至 40% 以上(見下圖)。

2脂肪肝

當我們吃下葡萄糖后,這些葡萄糖會被身體的各個器官,或者細胞拿去使用,為身體提供能量。多余的葡萄糖,會以糖原的形式,儲存在肝臟或者肌肉中。

但持續吃掉大量含有果葡糖漿的食物后,肝臟周邊的脂肪越堆越多,漸漸就形成了 脂肪肝。

根據美國國家圖書館中收錄的一項持續70年的《Dietary Fructose and Glucose Differentially Affect Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis》研究顯示:那些每天至少喝1杯含果葡糖漿飲料的人,患非酒精性脂肪肝的風險,比那些不喝飲料的人高出55%。

3糖尿病

隨著脂肪肝的加重,人體還會出現血脂代謝異常,進一步誘發 胰島素抵抗,增大患2型糖尿病的風險。

2012年,一項研究發表在《全球公共衛生》(Global Public Health)雜志上的研究證實:使用果葡糖漿的國家比沒有使用的,2型糖尿病風險高出20%。

牛津大學和美國南加州大學的研究人員對比了42個國家后發現:果葡糖漿消費越多的國家,2型糖尿病發病率越高。

2006年,哈佛大學一項關于《添加甜味劑》(Added sweeteners)的研究證實:每天飲用一種或多種含糖軟飲料的女性,相比于每月少于一次的女性,患2型糖尿病的概率是后者的2倍。

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