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對抗性數據需警惕,科學家已經測試“欺騙”了一輛無人車

分類:數碼科技 瀏覽數:28 2019-07-03 23:01 網易科技 Yuki 編輯: 厚學

近年來,人工智能已經取得了長足的進步,但正如許多人工智能使用者所表明的那樣,人工智能仍然容易出現一些人類并不會犯的驚人錯誤。雖然這些錯誤有時可能是人工智能進行學習時不可避免的后果,但越來越明顯的是,一個比我們意想中嚴重得多的問題正帶來越來越大的風險:對抗性數據。

對抗性數據描述了這樣一種情況,人類用戶故意向算法提供已損壞的信息,損壞的數據打亂了機器學習過程,從而欺騙算法得出虛假的結論或不正確的預測。

作為一名生物醫學工程師,筆者認為對抗數據是一個值得關注的重要話題。最近,加州大學伯克利分校(UC Berkeley)教授唐恩·宋(Dawn Song)“欺騙”了一輛自動駕駛汽車,讓它以為停車標志上的限速是每小時45英里。

這種性質的惡意攻擊很容易導致致命的事故。同樣地,受損的算法數據可能導致錯誤的生物醫學研究,重則危及生命或影響醫學事業的創新發展。

直到最近,人們才意識到對抗性數據的威脅,我們不能再忽視它了。

對抗性數據是如何產生的呢?

有趣的是,即使不帶任何惡意,也可能產生對抗性數據的輸出。這在很大程度上是因為算法能夠“觀察”到我們人類無法識別的數據中的東西。由于這種可見性,麻省理工學院最近的一個案例研究將對抗性描述為一種特性,而不是故障。

在這項研究中,研究人員將人工智能學習過程中的“魯棒性”和“非魯棒性”特征進行了分離。魯棒特征通常可以被人類感知到,而非魯棒特征只能被人工智能檢測到。研究人員嘗試用一種算法讓人工智能識別貓的圖片,結果顯示,系統通過觀察圖像中的真實模式,卻得出錯誤的結論。

錯誤識別發生的原因是,人工智能看到的是一組無法明顯感知的像素,使得它無法正確識別照片。這導致在識別算法的過程中,系統在無意中被訓練成使用誤導模式。

這些非魯棒性特征作為一種“干擾噪聲”,導致算法的結果存在缺陷。因此,黑客要想干擾人工智能,往往只需要引入一些非魯棒特性,這些特性不容易被人眼識別,但可以明顯地改變人工智能的輸出結果。

對抗性數據和黑暗人工智能的潛在后果

正如安全情報局的穆阿扎姆·汗所指出的,依賴于對抗性數據的攻擊主要有兩種類型:“中毒攻擊”和“閃躲攻擊”。在中毒攻擊中,攻擊者提供了一些輸入示例,這些輸入示例使得決策邊界轉移向對攻擊者有利的方向;在閃躲攻擊中,攻擊者會使得程序模型對樣本進行錯誤分類。

例如,在筆者所熟悉的生物醫學環境中,對抗性數據的攻擊可能會導致算法錯誤地將有害或受污染的樣本標記為良性且清潔,這就可能導致錯誤的研究結果或不正確的醫療診斷。

讓人工智能學習算法也可以被用來驅動專門為幫助黑客而設計的惡意人工智能程序。正如《惡意人工智能報告》所指出的,黑客可以利用人工智能為他們的各項破壞活動提供便利,從而實現更廣泛的網絡攻擊。

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