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“原始”蛋白成功植入工程大腸桿菌,生命起源之謎有望突破

分類:科技分享 瀏覽數:25 2019-07-04 11:56 鳳凰科技 良弼 編輯: 厚學

北京時間7月2日消息,美國羅格斯大學和萊斯大學的研究人員再次挑戰地球生命的起源之謎。

對現代細胞新陳代謝的關鍵蛋白進行研究之后,該研究小組逆向設計了一種簡化的蛋白質,這種蛋白質可能在遠古時代就啟動了新陳代謝的過程。為證明這一理論,研究人員把這種簡化的蛋白質植入活的細菌中,并發現植入后細菌存活狀態良好。

這種蛋白質屬于一種鐵氧化還原蛋白。它就像生物電容器一樣,利用鐵硫團簇吸收一個分子中的電子,并將這些電子傳遞給其他分子,因此對細菌、植物和動物的新陳代謝過程至關重要。

現代鐵氧化還原蛋白以一系列復雜的形式出現,但科學界認為在遙遠的過去,所有的鐵氧化還原蛋白都產生于一個更簡化的版本。在早期的一項研究中,羅格斯大學的研究人員曾設計出一種小型合成的鐵氧化還原蛋白,它有可能與數十億年前生命所使用的構建模塊相仿。

在這項新的研究中,羅格斯大學的科學家們與萊斯大學的研究人員合作,對這些合成蛋白質進行測試,觀察它們是否在生命形式中發揮了預期的作用。研究人員對大腸桿菌的基因組進行編輯,移除大腸桿菌自然用來產生鐵氧化還原蛋白的基因,然后植入經過設計的簡化版蛋白基因。

該研究小組對幾種不同的簡化版蛋白進行測試,并發現這些蛋白基本發揮了預期的作用。雖然大腸桿菌菌落的生長速度比平常有所減緩,但它們都存活了下來,表明這些蛋白質在分子間傳遞電子的功能并沒有受到損害。

這項研究意義重大。首先,它提高了人們對地球上早期生命進化的理解,也可能是對外星生命進化的理解。這項研究的主要作者安德魯?穆特表示,(通過這項研究)人們可以更進一步了解遠古細胞這一地球上所有生命的祖先的內部運作,并由此更進一步理解生命最初是如何形成的,以及生命在其他星球的可能產生方式。

此外,這項突破對合成生物學也同樣重要。了解新陳代謝如何發揮作用以及利用方式,有助于科學家為微生物編制各種用途的程序,比如能源儲存、生物燃料的生產,甚至是對抗病毒等。

研究人員還指出,現代生活中出現的鐵氧化還原蛋白更加復雜,但研究所創作的簡化版仍然能夠維持生命的運轉,未來的實驗可能在此基礎之上開發潛在的工業應用。

這項研究發表在最新一期《美國國家科學院院刊》上。

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